The full name of the MPPT controller, "Maximum Power Point Tracking" solar controller, is an upgrading product of the traditional solar charge and discharge controller.
The MPPT controller can detect the generating voltage of the solar panel in real time and track the maximum voltage and current value (VI), so that the system can charge the battery with maximum power output. It is the brain of photovoltaic system to coordinate solar panels, batteries and loads in solar photovoltaic systems.
An overview of 2 MPPT
The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) system is a kind of electrical system that regulates the working state of the electrical module and enables the photovoltaic board to output more electrical energy. It can effectively store the DC power emitted by the solar panels in the battery, and can effectively solve the deviation of the conventional power grid that can not be covered. Living and industrial electricity in remote areas and tourist areas do not cause environmental pollution.
The output power of the photovoltaic cell is related to the operating voltage of the MPPT controller. Only under the most suitable voltage will the output power of the photovoltaic cell have a unique maximum.
The intensity of sunshine is 1000W/, U=24V, I=1A; U=30V, I=0.9A, U=36V, I=0.7A; the maximum output power can be seen under 30 voltage.
The function of 3 MPPT
The main function of the MPPT controller is to detect the DC voltage and output current of the main circuit, calculate the output power of the solar array and track the maximum power point. The disturbance resistance R and the MOSFET are connected together, and the average current passing through the resistance is changed by changing the duty ratio of the MOSFET, so the disturbance of the current is generated. At the same time, the output current and voltage of the photovoltaic cell will also change. By measuring the change of the output power and voltage of the photovoltaic cell before and after the disturbance, the disturbance direction of the next cycle is determined. When the direction of the disturbance is correct, the output power of the solar energy board is increased, the next period continues to disturb in the same direction, and conversely, the negative direction is disturbed. In this way, disturbance and observation are repeated to make the output of solar photovoltaic panels reach the maximum power point.
The principle of 4 MPPT
To charge the battery, the output voltage of the solar panel must be higher than the current voltage of the battery. If the voltage of the solar panel is lower than the battery voltage, the output current will be close to 0. So, to be safe, the peak voltage of the solar panel (Vpp) is about 17V when the solar panel is made out of the factory, which is set by the standard when the ambient temperature is 25 C. When the weather is very hot, the peak voltage of the solar panel will fall to about 15V, but in cold weather, the peak voltage of the solar energy can reach 18V of Vpp. The peak voltage of the solar panel is Vpp in cold weather.
Now let's go back to compare the difference between the MPPT solar controller and the traditional solar controller. The traditional solar charge and discharge controller is a bit like a manual gearbox. When the engine speed is higher, the speed can be affected if the gear position of the gearbox does not increase accordingly. But for the traditional controller, the charging parameters are set before the factory is set up. That is, the MPPT controller will track the maximum power point in the solar panel to play the maximum power of the solar panel. The higher the voltage, the more power can be generated by maximum power point tracking, thereby improving the charging efficiency. In theory, the solar power system using the MPPT controller will be 50% higher than the traditional efficiency, but according to our actual tests, the final efficiency can also be increased by 20%-30% due to the environmental impact and energy loss.
In this sense, the MPPT solar charge and discharge controller will eventually replace the traditional solar controller.